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A disconnection device  enabling a cost-effective and reliable design 

Identical cells in a battery pack can age differently.  An aged cell will reach a higher or lower voltage more quickly than a new cell. An aged battery pack without balancing thus comprises cells with different cell voltages. When ageing more, the variation will become more distinct.

Background
The voltage in a serial assembly is the sum of the voltages of the individual cells. Unfortunately, in an assembly of identical cells connected in series, the whole assembly is one chain that ceases to function when it is not interconnected. Thus, the overall performance of a multi-cell battery assembly is determined by the performance of the weakest cell. For safety reasons, each cell must be limited to a maximum and a minimum voltage. This can be done by monitoring individual cell voltages, and preventing the battery pack from charging or discharging when any of the cells has reached a predetermined maximum or minimum limit. At a particular moment in time, a particular cell can limit the whole battery pack.      

Challenge
Most of the existing switch solutions are large, expensive or limited in current. A known solution is to remove the defective cell from the battery pack. However, e.g. due to the construction of the pack, this leads to rejection of the complete  battery pack. Another solution is to introduce  switches connected to the cells, bypassing the defective cells. Most of the existing switch solutions are large, expensive or limited in current.

Features

  • High current  potential  while having small dimensions;
  • Limited number of components needed;
  • Operates under influence of gravity.

 

Advantages

  • Low fabrication cost;
  • Longer use of battery packs;
  • No oxidation of materials.

Applications

  • Energy storage devices;
  • Battery packs;
  • Electric vehicles.

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