Improved system performance by balancing individual electric energy storage cells 

Electric energy storage systems consist of cells, electrostatic (capacitor) cells or electrochemical cells e.g. in (batteries). Charging or discharging the system often happens when one of these cells is empty or full. To maximize the system’s capacity, the charge in all cells should be balanced. Overcharging can damage cells or reduce their lifetime.

Even when cells are connected in series, they are never exactly equally charged. The capacity of a string of cells is maximal when the smallest cell limits both charging and discharging. Thus, the charge level in every cell must be monitored and corrected when necessary.

Not balancing cells may lead to cells being overcharged or overdischarged. Balancing cells when they approach their voltage or SoC (State of Charge) limit does not guarantee that the voltage limits are respected as the balancing current is often some magnitudes smaller than charge or discharge currents.

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